Spartium
Spartium junceum (habitus).jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Genisteae
Genus: Spartium
L.
Species:
S. junceum
Binomial name
Spartium junceum
L.
Synonyms

Genus:

  • Spartianthus Link

Species:

  • Cytisus junceus (L.) Vuk.
  • Genista acutifolia Spach
  • Genista Americana Spach
  • Genista hispanica Garsault
  • Genista juncea (L.) Scop.
  • Genista odorata Moench
  • Genista odoratissima Spach
  • Spartanthus americanus Steud.
  • Spartanthus junceus Link
  • Spartium acutifolium Lindl.
  • Spartium americanum Meyen
  • Spartium japonicum Miq.
  • Spartium odoratissimum D.Don ex Steud.
  • Spartium odoratum Dulac

Spartium junceum, known as Spanish broom,[1] rush broom, or weaver's broom,[2] it is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae and the sole species in the genus Spartium.[3][4][5] It is closely related to the other brooms (in the genera Cytisus and Genista).

Taxonomy

The Greek name Spartium given to the genus denotes the use of the plant for 'cordage'.[6] The Latin specific epithet junceum means "rush-like", referring to the shoots, which show a passing resemblance to those of the rush genus Juncus.[7]

Distribution and habitat

This species is native to the Mediterranean in southern Europe, southwest Asia and northwest Africa,[8] where it is found in sunny sites, usually on dry, sandy soils.

Description

Spartium junceum is a vigorous, deciduous shrub growing to 2–4 m (7–13 ft) tall, rarely 5 m (16 ft), with main stems up to 5 cm (2 in) thick, rarely 10 cm (4 in). It has thick, somewhat succulent grey-green rush-like shoots with very sparse small deciduous leaves 1 to 3 cm long and up to 4 mm broad. The leaves are of little importance to the plant, with much of the photosynthesis occurring in the green shoots (a water-conserving strategy in its dry climate). The leaves fall away early.[9] In late spring and summer shoots are covered in profuse fragrant yellow pea-like flowers 1 to 2 cm across. In late summer, the legumes (seed pods) mature black and reach 8–10 cm (3–4 in) long. They burst open, often with an audible crack, spreading seed from the parent plant.

Cultivation and uses

The plant is used as an ornamental plant in gardens and in landscape plantings. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2][10]

In Bolivia and Peru, the plant is known as retama,[8] (not to be confused with the genus Retama) and has become very well established in some areas. It is one of the most common ornamental plants, often seen growing along sidewalks in La Paz.[citation needed]

Retama has made its way into the ethnobotany of the indigenous Aymara and Quechua cultures.[citation needed]

The plant is also used as a flavoring, and for its essential oil, known as genet absolute.[8][11] Its fibers have been used for cloth and it produces a yellow dye.[11][12]

As an invasive species

Spartium junceum has been widely introduced into other areas, and is regarded as a noxious invasive species in places with a Mediterranean climate such as California and Oregon, Hawaii, central Chile, southeastern Australia,[13] the Western Cape in South Africa and the Canary Islands and Azores.[8][14] It was first introduced to California as an ornamental plant.[14][15]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Spartium junceum". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  2. ^ a b "RHS Plant Selector - Spartium junceum". Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  3. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Spartium". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  4. ^ USDA; ARS; National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Spartium". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  5. ^ "The Plant List entry for Spartium". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  6. ^ "A Modern Herbal | Broom, Spanish". www.botanical.com. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  7. ^ A–Z encyclopedia of garden plants. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley in association with the Royal Horticultural Society. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
  8. ^ a b c d "Spartium junceum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  9. ^ Jepson Manual Treatment
  10. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 99. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  11. ^ a b FAO
  12. ^ botanical.com
  13. ^ "The NSW Government WeedWise Resource from the Department of Primary Industries".
  14. ^ a b US Forest Service Fire Ecology
  15. ^ Element Stewardship: S. junceum